Muscle Hypertrophy

In Fitness, Knowledge, Muscle Gain, Nutrition, Specialise, Training, Transformations by kpgx92

What Causes Muscle Mass?

Muscle mass is the interaction of 6 different factors. These help to maintain and develop muscle mass. They include genetics, nervous system activation, environmental factors, endocrine influences, nutritional status and physical activity.

Changes in muscles become detectable after only 3 weeks of training. However, these changes are not yet noticeable to the eye. Overload training increases the size of the muscle fibres with subsequent muscle growth.

The fast twitch fibres of weight trainers average roughly 45% larger than those of an endurance athlete or a healthy sedentary person. Muscle growth is the result of repetitive muscle fibre injury, this is particularly apparent in the eccentric action of a movement. After this, an over compensation of protein synthesis occurs to produce a net anabolic effect (the muscle cells thicken and increase in number).

A single form of resistant training will never create an equal strength throughout the muscle. Bicep curls performed at 1-RM (one rep max is the maximum amount of force that can be generated in one contraction) will not produce equal strength gains from the origin (shoulder) to the insertion (over your elbow). Muscle need to be worked through different exercises, intensity and angles.

Physiological adaptations to resistance training:

♦ Number of Muscle Fibres = Increase
♦ Strength of Muscle Fibres = Increase
♦ Mitochondria Volume + Density = Decrease
♦ Ligament Strength = Increase
♦ Tendon Strength = Increase
♦ Basal Metabolism = Increase
♦ Collagen Content of the Muscle = No Change
♦ Percentage of Body Fat = Decrease
♦ Lean Body Mass = Increase
♦ Bone Density + Mineral Content = Increase


The transition from Autumn to Winter is in full swing, the nights are drawing in, the frosty mornings are reborn and sunlight seems to have vanished by 5pm. So is the excuse ‘it’s too cold’ valid?


This is dependant on the extremity of the cold weather and high winds, which could potentially lead to frost bite, hypothermia or freezing. Exercise in these situations wouldn’t be recommended due to the lack of energy available in our body. Excessive fatigue is the first step towards these conditions and the body always holds back a reserve of energy for emergencies so wasting crucial energy on exercise is definitely not advised.

Consequently, vasoconstriction (constriction of the blood vessels) increases the insulating capacity. This in turn would directly lead to a reduction in the temperature of the extremities (limbs). The body would be happy to lose a few fingers or toes to keep your internal organs warm!


Benefits of exercising in cold weather:

  • Immune system boost 

    Winter training is a great way to boost your immune system and protect yourself from the seasonal flu. It’s been discovered that regular exercise in the cold outdoors reduces the risk of flu susceptibility by 20-30%.

  • Circulation boost 

    Exercise increases the circulation in your body through your heart and lungs. These affects are heightened in cold weather. Quicker circulation!

  • Enhances lung efficiency

     Training in cold weather puts a greater pressure on the lungs (which is good). Studies conducted showed that training in cold weather trains your lungs to utilise oxygen more efficiently, which help to boost your overall athletic performance.

So, the UK’s winter weather is perfectly fine to exercise in. It may be cold but make sure you warm up before you go outside, wrap up warm and keep moving. Because of the metabolic heat generated in our muscles, the more you move the more energy (ATP) your body creates.

Get a green tea inside you and enjoy the fresh air!